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So we’ve got our robot moving in different directions and now we need it to move to the directions we want which is away from walls. We do this using Phototransistors which is sort of similar to a Light Dependent Resistor (a component that changes resistance due to lighting) except Phototransistors actually use infra-red and have two components, the emitter and detector. The emitter well emits the infra-red (which we can’t see) and the detector detects how much of that infra-red is coming back.

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So we’ve got our parts and our motor controller so we are now ready to make this robot move forward, backwards and turn. I’m assuming you’ve put the wheels on the motors, mounted them to your design, used a gearbox if necessary and you do have a motor controller. Plus you also have the 9 volt battery and clip for Arduino.

In this part we will need:

  • Arduino Duemilanove ATmega328
  • 4 x NPN general transistors (e.g. PN100, PN2222)
  • 4 x 6.2K Ohm resistors (10K will do fine too)
  • Breadboard
  • Some wire

Example Schematic below

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